Such kind of houses can be found in the colony of Histria as well as at Berezan, Olbia, Panikapaion and, in the territory, at Tariverde, Sarinasuf and in the Bug inferior area. There have been a lot of discoveries at Tomis near Cathedral park, so very close to the frequented navigators and merchants places. Other discoveries in the Peninsula - a great number of arrowheads having truck functions and wrap amphoras of Chiod and Lesbos - underline the idea that the first colonist coming from Milet set here an important emparion. If Histria and Callatis flourished rapidly, Tomis had a slower evolution. The documents in the 6th-4th century B.C. don't mention Tomis so its affiliation to the Delian League (486 B.C.) hasn't been certified for us yet. We don't know the reasons of this slow development, but we can take into account its cultural and economic fluorishement in the Hellenistic epoch, when the town became more and more a polis.When Histria passed to a crisis, Tomis was a safe place for ships, more favourable for trade. On the other side, its economic power was larger as it wasn't based only upon the villages in its area(chora), as there was Tariverde, for example, for Histria or Albesti for Callatis. Near the Danube was set Axiopolis (Cernavoda) from where cereals coming from the Daco-Getians Plain were sent to Tomis. An event in 260 B.C.   Portul%20Tomis.jpg (19882 bytes) described by the historian Memnon from Pontic Heracleea, emphasised Tomis importance, as it was disputed on one hand by the confederation of Histria and Callatis and, on the other hand, by Bizantyum, the well-known town on the Hellespontic coast, which wanted to affirm its hegemony here, too. Or, as Memnon himself said, the Bizantyunians started a war "against the people in Callatis - these were colonists of Heracleea - and in the same time against the peolple in Histria ," trying to monopolize Tomis (Fontes Historiae Romaniae, 1, 511).This conflict proved to be favourable to Tomis, providing it a necessary opening for the independent and full-sized port activities. Indeed, all the dates show a real evolution in complex aspects. Tomis had numerous commercial changes with important centres - and their mention, based on archaeological proves can be relevant: Messambria, Apollonia, Bizantyum, Athens, Sinope, Thasos, Rhodos, Cos, Cnidos, Olbia, Chersonesos and so on. The supplies for this ample trade was extent from the suitable relations with the local aristocracy to fruitful contacts with the chiefs and merchants in the North of Danube.On the other side, on the way Tomis-Axiopolis and, from here, to the interior of Dacia, the Greek goods could penetrate. All these bring an important payment to the town as we can ascertain, in this period, a lot of public and private buildings, paved streets, aqueducts and so on. Tomis certain prosperity is also testified by its currency. Though the Getians coexisted with the Greek, in adequate way of life, Tomis imitated the Greek traditional polis, the leaders being the council and the people assembly (boule kai demos ); the ordinary activity was supervised by special clercks: archonts, agoranomes, strategei, oikonomes. Like at Histria, Apollo was the protective divinity. Besides, there were also venerated: Poseidon, Hermes, the Dioscures, Demetra, Dionysos. The Thracian-Dacian cults interwove with the Greek cults and these interferences gave birth to specific divinities like The Great God at Histria, the Thracian Derzelas having a multitude of qualities in the area, or the Thracian Cavalry. HISTRIA.jpg (30503 bytes)As much as the archaeological research permitted, some elements testify, for this period, the existence of some cultural institutions and schools at Tomis.
The Roman expansion in the Balkan Peninsula, finalized by transforming Greece and Macedonia into Roman provinces will put the towns on the west coast of the Black Sea into danger. In spite of the fierce opposition of Mitridates the 6th, the king of the Pontus, leading an anti-Roman coalition during the third confrontation, between 72 / 71 B.C., the governor of Macedonia, Marcus Terentius Verro Lucullus, made an expedition on the west coast, setting here Roman garrisons. It is possible that, following Callatis' example, which entered into a pact with the Romans (the well-known Callatis foedus), the other towns, inclusively Tomis set such kind of agreement with Rome. The severe taxes, the obligation of keeping up the garrisons, the offends and probably a certain control upon trade, determined the Greeks to rise in arms. They allied with the Getians in the province and with the Bastarns. In 62 / 61 B.C., they confronted with the Romans at Histria. Here the Macedonian proconsul, C. Antonius Hybrida had maybe the most shameful defeat a Roman general ever had. The great historian Vasile Parvan, wondered, referring to the proportion and the firmness of those anti-Roman fighters, if the person who lead the anti-Roman coalition and defeated Hybrida couldn't be Burebista the great king, who was decided by that time to set up and enlarge the Getic-Dacian state. In short time after this battle, between 55-44 B.C. Burebista managed to integrate into his state all the west coast towns, from Olbia in the North (near Bug), to Apollonia (Sozopol) in the South (in Bulgaria)

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